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# ็†ๅทฅ ๐Ÿ”Œ ๐Ÿšฐ ๐Ÿญ โš—๏ธ

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13 days ago4 min read

CR1632 battery
RM 2.50 / Reindeer, 3V @ Mr Dollar 20230127

Safety Boots
RM 75 / Safety shoes, DIY homebrand @ Mr DIY Setia Tropika 2023 Jan
RM 93 / Safety joggers, Safetyboy@ Mr DIY Setia Tropika 2023 Jan

้›ปๅทฅ ๐Ÿ”Œ


Commercial rate
RM 0.55 / kW
SGD 0.25 / kW

Monthly Maximum Demand (MD) Charge = RM41.82/kW X Maximum kW @ 2023

Commercial Electricity Billing in Singapore is based on 10 minutes interval

PQMS can reflect actual billing within 5% error

Good ground resistance < 5 ohm

Advanced Diploma in Applied Electrical Engineering (Power Systems) 52888WA @ Engineering Institute of Technology, Australia
USD 7000 / online @ 2018

Electric Bill

  • ๐“‚ฌรณhโ‚‚'๐“‹ฟu๊ป.๐“ท๐Œ™๐‘€ฏ๊ป.๐“Š€โฆ แŒˆโฆ z โ‘‚ei๐Œ™๊ป๐“‹ฟฤ€๏ผš ใ€???? /๐“‚€ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“ใ€ฐ ใ€‘

  • โŒธ๐ŒโŒธสทโฆ  ๐“ƒป ๐“‚ฌโฆ ๐“‹ฟ๐Œโฆ hโ‚‚.๐“ƒพ๊ป ๏ผš ใ€โŒธโ‚๐“†“รฉw๐“†“ ๐“Šฝ๊•€'hโ‚‚วตสฐรฉ๊ป๐“‹ฟ'hโ‚‚.hโ‚ƒo๐Œhโ‚‚ /๐“‚€ ใ€Šโ˜ธ๏ธŽใ€ฐ๐“†“ ๐“ƒฑสฐs๐“‹ฟ๐‘€ฏhโ‚‚.โ‘‚ยธ๐‘€ฏ๐“‹ฟ๐Œˆ ฯ–o๐Œˆฤ“๐“ถe ๐“Šฝun.โŒธรญ๊ป๐Œˆฤ“๊•€i ใ€‹ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“ใ€ฐ ใ€‘ ใ€ฯ–รฉ๐Œ๐Ÿชกโฆ  ๐“Šฝ๊•€'hโ‚‚วตสฐรฉ๊ป๐“‹ฟ'hโ‚‚.hโ‚ƒo๐Œhโ‚‚ /๐“‚€ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“๐“†“ใ€‘

  • ใ€ฐแŒˆ.๐“ƒฑยธ๐Œ ๐“‚ฌ๐‘€ฏโŒ‚๐“ถ.๐“ƒฑยธy ๏ผšใ€โ˜ธ๏ธŽ90 ๐“ƒฑสฐ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“ใ€ฐ ใ€ฐ.๐“‚€ ใ€‘ใ€โ˜ธ๏ธŽ76 ๐“ƒฑสฐ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“ใ€ฐ ๐“Šฝ.๐“‚€ ใ€‘ ใ€๐“†“61 ๐“ƒฑสฐ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“ใ€ฐ ๐“ƒฑ.๐“‚€ ใ€‘ใ€๐“†“69 ๐“ƒฑสฐ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“ใ€ฐ ๐“‰ค.๐“‚€ ใ€‘ใ€ ๐“†“35 ๐“ƒฑสฐ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“ใ€ฐ ฮ“.๐“‚€ ใ€‘ใ€ ๐“†“50 ๐“ƒฑสฐ @ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐“†“ใ€ฐ ๐“‰ญ.๐“‚€ ใ€‘

Central Utility Building (CUB)

Playlist: Electricity ้›ปๅญธ

ๆฐด่™•็† ๐Ÿšฐ

Penang commercial Water Tariff
RM 2.10 / m^3 @ 2023
RM 1.45 / m^3 @ 2022

SAJ Monthly Minimum Charge = RM30 @ 2023

Coagulation (Lt. cogere "to curdle, collect, drive together", co- + agere < *ag-) ๆททๅ‡
Flocculation (Lt. floccus, "wool") ็ตฎๅ‡
Sedimentation ๆฒˆ้™

Malaysia Wastewater Release Requirements

  • TSS < 100 ppm (general), < 50ppm (water catchment areas)
  • COD < 80 ppm
  • Ammoniacal Nitrogen < 10 ppm

COVIDๅ‰๏ผŒๆทฑๅœณๆœ‰300ๅคšๅฎถๆฐด่™•็†ๅ…ฌๅธ๏ผŒ่ถŠๅ—ๅชๆœ‰8ๅฎถใ€‚2023ๅนด้ ญ๏ผŒๆทฑๅœณๅชๅ‰ฉ 100ๅคšๅฎถใ€‚

Cooling Tower ๅ†ทๅปๅก” ๐Ÿญ

Danfoss Valve

Automated Spongeball Tube Cleaning

  • Spongeballs need to be cleaned/replaced every ~ 3 months
  • Zeta Power can reduce Spongeball cleaning/replacement frequency


  • MOX - Scaling - ๐“‚งou๐Œ™os ใ€ฐanusโ˜ธ๏ธŽenere
  • โš”๏ธ ๐“ƒฑ๐“‹ฟโฆ ๐Œฮ“๐‘€ฏ
  • ๐“‚ฌรณy๊•€๐‘€ฏ๊ป.๐“ƒฑรฉ๐Œhโ‚e๐Œ แˆ ๐Œ: ๐“†“.ฤ.โ‘‚i๐“ˆˆ๐Œˆ hโ‚‚รฉะด.๐“‚ฌhโ‚‚๐“‚‹yรฉ๐Œˆi.ehโ‚‚๐Œˆo๊ป hโ‚e๐“‚‹i ใ€ฐaแŒˆi๐Œฤ….๐“Šฝ๐“ถow๊•€o๊ป ๐“ƒพ๊ป ๐“‚ฌe(y)๐Œˆ hโ‚รฉ๊ป๐Œˆ' รณynos ๐“†“.ใ€ฐehโ‚‚๐Œˆu๐“ถรณ๊ป โ˜ธ๏ธŽe๐Œˆแธฑ๊ป๐Œehโ‚‚.๐“‹พรณg.๐“ƒˆehโ‚‚
  • โ˜ธ๏ธŽ๐‘€ฏ๐Œ' โ˜ธ๏ธŽ๐Œ: ๐“†“โฆ i๐Œa๐Œ†- ๐“‚ฌฤซ๊•€'yฤส”.๐“ƒˆ๐Œ™รณs.๐“ƒพ๐“‹ฟis ๐“Šฝ(w)รฉ.๐“‹พuล.โ˜ธ๏ธŽjล.๐“†“em wวฃre wehโ‚ros ฯ–o๐“‚‹l.ฤ๐“ถ's hโ‚รฉ๐Œ ๐“†“๐Œ†๐Œ†๐Œ†.๊ป, hโ‚epi.รบd maist earun ๐“Œ‰i๊ป๊ปos.๐“‹พau๊ปa๐Œ† , ๐“‰ญฮ“ฮ“๊•€โŒ‚๐“ถ โ‘‚re.๐“‚ฌhโ‚‚๐“‚‹yรฉ๐Œˆi.ehโ‚‚๐Œˆo๊ป รณynos โŒธleu๐Œˆa๐Œฤ… hโ‚‚epo ๐“‚ฌo๊•€ฯ–lehโ‚‚๐Œ™โ˜ธ๏ธŽus.e๊ป


  • 1 unit can treat 2 tonne of water per hour, usually for small Cooling Water System in Commercial buildings
  • Electrolysis but most likely will not corrode Cooling Tower because it's a standalone unit
  • ๐“‚ฌou๐Œ™os.๐“‹พ'๐Œ™os ๐“‚ฌ๐‘€ฏ๊•€๐“‰ญสฐle๐“ทวต๐“ƒˆล‹ล witeros โšฏ๐Œˆฯ–๐“Œ€๐“ถ

3rd Party facilities management providers: CBRE, Ecolex

Blowdown ไธŸๆฐด
~ 800 - 1000 uS/cm

Cooling Tower chem trtmnt
~ RM 10000+++ / month @ Malaysia 2022

Langelier Saturation Index
Corrosion < -0.3 < LSI < +0.3 < scaling

Scaling โฌ†

  • temperature โฌ†
  • pH โฌ†
  • conductivity โฌ†
  • hardness โฌ†

Chlorine corrodes 304 & 316 Steel

Cooling Tower Energy Trade-off Optimization:
Fans vs. Pump

Propeller Fan vs. Blower Fan

  • Blower Fans require at least twice the applied horsepower of
    Propeller Fans to deliver equivalent air flow

A 10% increase in flow will require about 21% greater pressure. A 10% decrease in flow will decrease the required pressure by about 19%.

Manipulation of air rate (and fan power) is a far more energy-effective means of regulating thermal capacity than control of water rate

approximately 1% reduction in Compressor Power for each degree that the Condenser Cooling Water Supply Temperature is lowered

Compressor Power reduction would have begun to exceed Propeller Fan power consumption at or below a wet-bulb temperature of approximately 72ยฐF, whereas equality on Blower Fan operation would not have been reached until about 64ยฐF wet bulb.

Fan Laws

  • ZPR๐Ÿ—ก

Drew Ameroid Acquired Solenis:
Biosperse (corrosive, functions @ acidic pH)

Corrosion Inhibitor 20-30%
Dispersant 0%
Oxi Biocide 100%
Non-oxi Biocide 100%

Cooling Tower BALANCING side Water Flow SLOWER

Polarized matter is accelerated in the electric field with a change in the arrangement of free ions around polarized matter as a result of a change in the hydrodynamic resistance in the fluid (Derjaguin et al 1980).

High Voltage Capacitance Field Induce Time-transient Colloid Polarization, Charge (free ions) Rearrangement, structural-conformational changes, ion pairs dissociation

Biofouling Control in Heat Exchangers using High Voltage Based Technology
Fouling Mitigation in Aqueous Systems Using Electrochemical Water Treatment (Zeta Rod Working Principle)

Zeta Power Improves Both Cooling Tower & Chillers Efficiency, 2023-Sep-13

Zeta Power Reduces Scaling & Peels Off Biofilms on Condenser, Lowers Tโ‚—โ‚’แตฅแตฅ & P๊œ€โ‚’โ‚™, Increases ๐Ÿญ Power Generation Efficiency and Reduces Waste Heat & Fuel Consumption (kg/kWh), 2023-Aug-17

??? *๏ธโƒฃ+ ๐Ÿค - โฌ ???


Benzalkonium chloride
RM 450/ 30L @ 2019

Peptide polymer ๏ผˆ่šๅˆ่‚ฝ๏ผ‰
USD 10-100 per kg๏ผˆๅ–ๅ†ณไบŽ้•ฟๅบฆใ€ๅคๆ‚ๅบฆ๏ผ‰@ 2019

Peptides (Synthetic specific-sequence, 10 to 30 residues long)
USD 100,000 per kg @ 2019


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