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网红历史老师揭示中俄恩怨:从尼布楚条约到雅尔塔会议

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cheva
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29 days ago6 min read

在网络自媒体中,讲历史是很多网红自媒体热衷的一个题材。而历史老师则是在这方面,有先天优势的人。在网红历史老师中,最有名的应该就是袁腾飞了。他的发迹起于官媒央视的《百家讲坛》节目,讲的也是中国古代史。不过后来有人将他在课堂上课的一些视频发到了网上,引起了更多的关注。人们发现。他在上课的时候主讲的近代历史,同时向学生传递了很多与官方口径不一样的历史观点。这样一来,自然在官媒上就不会再有曝光的机会,但是在网络媒体兴起的今天管道,只要产生了影响力之后就不怕没有靠流量赚钱的门路。袁老师在网络自媒体上反而有了更大的受众群体和关注度。不过也因为他的观点现在在网络上也受到了很大程度的打压。

与他齐名的,还有一位叫石国鹏的历史老师。也是因为他的课堂视频在网上传播引起的关注,成为了网红,他们两者上课的风格都非常接近。喜欢讲故事,语言风趣幽默,而且观点也不完全拘泥于官方的正统观点,给人耳目一新的感觉。

昨天,我在网上看到一个石国鹏老师讲中俄关系历史的演讲。因为里面提到了泽连斯基和俄罗斯入侵乌克兰,所以应该是。近期至少是近年的比较新的演讲。里面主要讲的是近代以来中俄的关系。主要观点就是俄罗斯侵略成性,是中国最大的威胁云云。

中俄的早期接触应该是从康熙年间中俄签订《尼布楚条约》开始的。在沙俄时期,俄国向远东的探险扩张到达了东北亚。和正处于如日中天的清王朝发生了冲突,爆发了雅克萨之战。康熙皇帝御驾亲征。以清王朝当时的国力,数量占绝对劣势的沙俄探险队毫无悬念的失败了,双方签订了被认为是平等的条约《尼布楚条约》规定以外兴安岭为界划分边界。

但是到了晚清。特别是第2次鸦片战争时期间,沙俄趁火打劫。不再承认尼布楚条约将黑龙江以北的大片领土据为己有。后来在庚子国变,也就是八国联军入侵战争的时候故伎重演。不但派军参与八国联军攻打北京城,还继续越过黑龙江向南发展。因为这一举动威胁到了当时已经沦为日本殖民地的朝鲜的安全。日本和沙俄在中国的领土——东北地区爆发了日俄战争,日本以非常大的代价取得胜利。遏制住了俄罗斯沙俄对中国领土的侵吞。

除了对中国东北的领土,怀有野心之外,对外蒙古,还有新疆。沙俄都有企图。扶持当地的势力,从中国独立,然后再进行吞并。新疆地区曾经在沙俄的支持下。建立过一个阿古柏领导的政权。宣布新疆从清朝独立,后来这一政权被左宗棠消灭,收复了新疆。现在说到洋务运动,因为后来的甲午战败被认为是失败的,而李鸿章为代表的这些洋务时期推动洋务运动的名臣,在后来大多评价不高。只有左宗棠例外,被当作民族英雄。其中一个重要的原因就是,左宗棠打败了沙俄扶持的分裂势力,收获了新疆。

俄罗斯对外蒙古的分裂则持续了很长的时间,期间沙俄已经覆灭,但他的继承者苏俄也一直维持这一政策直到二战即将结束的时候。通过苏美英在雅尔塔的三巨头会议确定。外蒙古从中国独立。二战期间所谓的盟国巨头会议开过多次。除了雅塔会议之外,中美英三国还在开罗举办过一个开罗会议,当时是蒋介石作为中国的元首,同时是盟国的巨头之一出席的。之所以会有这样的安排。也是因为。苏联要讨论外蒙古的问题。不可能当着中国的面进行。为了获得苏联对日开战的承诺。避免美军直接在日本本土登陆作战需要承受的巨大伤亡,罗斯福答应了这个要求。并且直接通知国民政府说美国已经同意了。当时的外交部长宋子文拒绝签字。毕竟宋家也是四大家族之一,蒋介石拿他没办法。而且宋子文也是蒋的小舅子。这种卖国的黑锅也不能让自家人来背。于是派出了低阶官员签署了协议。外蒙古就在苏联的策划下独立了。

当然说这些我也只是转述石国鹏老师的观点,其实历史事件。角度和侧面很多。不好简单的评价。虽然从石国鹏之前在网络上流传出来的课堂视频可以看出它是一个反对专制和极权主义的知识分子,但是从他这个讲中俄关系的视频中明显感受他同时也是一位强烈的民族主义者,并以此为荣。其实民族主义也是一种形式的集体主义。也很容易成为滋生极权主义的温床。他的观点还有很多,今天先介绍到这里吧。

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In online self-media, telling history is a topic that many Internet celebrity self-media are keen on. The history teacher is the one who has an innate advantage in this regard. Among the Internet celebrity history teachers, the most famous should be Yuan Tengfei. His origins began in the official media CCTV's "Hundred Lectures" program, which also talks about ancient Chinese history. But then some videos of him in class were posted online, which attracted more attention. People find out. He lectures on modern history in class, and at the same time conveys to students many historical perspectives that are different from the official ones. In this way, naturally there will be no more opportunities for exposure in the official media, but in today's pipeline with the rise of online media, as long as it has influence, it is not afraid that there is no way to make money by traffic. On the contrary, Mr. Yuan has a larger audience and attention on the online self-media. However, because his views are now suppressed to a great extent on the Internet.

With his name, there is also a history teacher named Shi Guopeng. It was also because of the attention that his class videos spread on the Internet that he became an Internet celebrity, and the two of them are very close in class style. He likes to tell stories, his language is humorous, and his views are not completely confined to the official orthodox views, which gives people a refreshing feeling.

Yesterday, I saw a lecture on the Internet by Mr. Shi Guopeng on the history of Sino-Russian relations. Because it mentions Zelensky and Russia's invasion of Ukraine, it should be. Recent presentations, at least in recent years, are relatively new. It mainly talks about the relations between China and Russia in modern times. The main point is that Russia's aggressive nature is the biggest threat to China.

The early contact between China and Russia should have begun with the signing of the Treaty of Nebuchu between China and Russia during the Kangxi period. During the Tsarist period, Russia's expeditionary expansion into the Far East reached Northeast Asia. There was a conflict with the Qing Dynasty, which was in full swing, and the Battle of Yaksa broke out. Emperor Kangxi drove the expedition in person. With the national strength of the Qing Dynasty at that time, the Tsarist Russian expedition, which was absolutely inferior in numbers, failed without any suspense, and the two sides signed a treaty considered equal, the Treaty of Nebuchu, which stipulated that the border should be demarcated with the outer Khing'an Mountains as the boundary.

But in the late Qing Dynasty. Especially during the Second Opium War, Tsarist Russia took advantage of the fire to loot. The Treaty of Nebuchu was no longer recognized, and a large area of territory north of the Heilongjiang River was taken for itself. Later, during the Gengzi National Revolution, that is, the invasion war of the Eight-Nation Alliance, the old trick was repeated. Not only did they send troops to participate in the Eight-Nation Alliance's attack on Beijing, but they also continued to cross the Heilongjiang River and develop southward. Because this move threatened the security of Korea, which had become a Japanese colony at that time. The Russo-Japanese War broke out in the northeastern region, the territory of Japan and Tsarist Russia in China, and Japan won the victory at a very large cost. The annexation of Chinese territory by Russian Tsarist Russia was contained.

In addition to the territory of Northeast China, with ambitions, Outer Mongolia, there is also Xinjiang. Tsarist Russia has attempts. Prop up local powers, gain independence from China, and then annex them. The Xinjiang region was once supported by Tsarist Russia. A regime led by Aguba was established. Xinjiang was declared independent from the Qing Dynasty, and this regime was later eliminated by Zuo Zongtang and Xinjiang was recovered. Now when it comes to the Westernization Movement, because the later defeat of the First Sino-Japanese War was considered a failure, and most of the famous ministers who promoted the Westernization Movement during the Westernization period represented by Li Hongzhang were not highly evaluated in the later period. Only Zuo Zongtang is an exception, who is regarded as a national hero. One of the important reasons is that Zuo Zongtang defeated the separatist forces supported by Tsarist Russia and harvested Xinjiang.

Russia's division of Outer Mongolia lasted for a long time, during which Tsarist Russia had fallen, but his successor, Soviet Russia, maintained this policy until the end of World War II. It was determined by the meeting of the Big Three in Yalta. Outer Mongolia became independent from China. During World War II, the so-called Allied giants met many times. In addition to the Yatta Conference, China, the United States, and Britain also hosted a Cairo Conference in Cairo, which was attended by Chiang Kai-shek as the head of state of China and one of the giants of the Allied powers. The reason for this arrangement. Also because. The USSR wanted to discuss the question of Outer Mongolia. It is impossible to do it in front of China. In order to obtain the promise of the USSR to go to war against Japan. Roosevelt agreed to avoid the huge casualties that the U.S. troops would have to suffer to land directly on the Japanese mainland. And directly informed the Nationalist Government that the United States had agreed. Soong Ziwen, the foreign minister at the time, refused to sign. After all, the Song family is also one of the four major families, and Chiang Kai-shek can't do anything about him. And Song Ziwen is also Jiang's brother-in-law. This kind of traitorous black pot can't be carried by one's own family. So low-ranking officials were sent to sign the agreement. Outer Mongolia became independent under the planning of the Soviet Union.

Of course, I am just paraphrasing Mr. Shi Guopeng's point of view, in fact, historical events. Angles and sides are a lot. Not a simple evaluation. Although it can be seen from Shi Guopeng's previous classroom videos circulating on the Internet that he is an intellectual who opposes authoritarianism and totalitarianism, it is clear from his video about Sino-Russian relations that he is also a strong nationalist and is proud of it. In fact, nationalism is also a form of collectivism. It can also easily become a breeding ground for totalitarianism. There are many more points of view, so let's introduce them here today.

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