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为什么说杨朱的“一毛不拔”是至理名言。

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cheva
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28 days ago4 min read

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看过我前面一些帖子的网友都知道我喜欢讨论道家学说的一些观点。道家中最著名的人物就是祖师爷老子和后来的庄子。其实道家还有一位著名的人物,其生活的年代,应该还在庄子之前。这位学者的名字叫杨朱。只是他的一些观点太过于超过世人和常人的理解。也是更不容于统治者的需要,所以流传下来的只剩下一些只言片语。但在当时,也就是战国中期。杨朱是非常有影响力的。那个时候的另一主要学说的掌门人——墨子就说:“天下之言。不出于杨则出于墨。”是说当时的舆论场上,最有话语权的人除了他墨子就是杨朱了。而当时的儒家依旧像孔子周游列国时一样,四处兜售他们的仁义学说,却也最不为人待见。其实原因很简单,君主认为,仁义无法帮他打天下;而底层百姓。则认为仁义过于虚伪。

虽然杨朱现在留下的言论并不太多,但有一个却非常出名,甚至还成为了成语。那就是杨朱曾经说过,“拔一毛而利天下,不为也。”大概的意思就是说,把我身上的一根毛拔下来就可以拯救天下黎民。虽然这件事对我来说轻而易举,但是我也不会去做。句话初看之下简直自私地不可理喻。是彻彻底底的自私自利啊。但其实就和很多名人名言一样。这句话很大程度上是断章取义,没有联系上下文和探究它本来的意义。比如著名的爱迪生所说的名人名言“天才是1%的灵感,加上99%的汗水。”但实际上这句话。只说了一半,下一句。爱迪生说的大概意思好像是那1%的灵感所发挥的作用。却是决定性的。而杨朱的这句话也是有上下文的,开始是“拔一毛而天下而利天下,我不为也。”但是“损天下而奉于一人,我亦不为也。”很显然这句话的重点是在这后半句,前半句只是引出话题而已,不是讨论的重点。而这实际上正是针对当和所有世代的统治者而言的。统治者经常在一些大义的名分下。要求被统治者或者自己的国民作出一点点牺牲,而实际上却是在满足他自己的私欲。这种私欲有时候是扩张领土,有时候是为了虚名和功绩。杨朱真正反对的其实是后者。

杨朱的思想。可以用简单的两个字来总结,就是“贵己”,每个人的生命都只有一次,而且生命是有限的,每个人都无法逃脱死亡。所以从这个前提出发。遵从自己的感受,满足自己的。利益满足自己真正需要的。才是最重要的。继续推而广之,也就是说死亡是不可避免的,而且虽然世事变幻,但是太阳底下没有新鲜事,古时候发生过的事情现在依然会发生,所以你活的足够精彩了,体验了应该体验的事情就没有必要感到遗憾了,而如何做到这一点呢?就是要从自己的本性出发。而这种本性上的需求更多的是精神上的,所以过多的物质需求还有民生名利其实都是。非人类本性的是外在的,不值得追求的。

除此之外把一毛儿你天下不为业也体现出了,非常强烈的而且适应于现代资本主义社会的产权观念。这一根毛是长在我的身上,自然是我身体的一部分,我也对他拥有完全的所有权。拔不拔应该是有我的意志来自由决定不能说。因为这件事情有利于天下所有人,我就必须做。如果这个逻辑成立,那么今天可以拔我一根毛,明天同样可以再拔一根。也许有哪一天为了天下人的利益,要了我的命也是可以的。所以这个漏洞一旦打开,那我私有产权将不复存在。人类社会的繁荣也就失去了基础。


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Those of you who have read some of my previous posts know that I like to discuss some views of Taoism. The most famous figures in the Taoist family were the ancestral master Lao Tzu and later Zhuangzi. In fact, there was another famous Taoist figure who lived in a time that should have been before Zhuangzi. The scholar's name was Yang Zhu. It is just that some of his views are too far beyond the understanding of the world and ordinary people. It is also more incompatible with the needs of the rulers, so only a few fragments of words remain. But at that time, it was the middle of the Warring States period. Yang Zhu is very influential. Mozi, the master of another major doctrine at that time, said: "The words of the world. If it doesn't come from Yang, it comes from Mo." It means that in the field of public opinion at that time, the person who has the most right to speak is Yang Zhu in addition to Mozi. Confucians at that time were still like Confucius when he traveled around the world, selling their doctrines of benevolence and justice, but they were also the most unpopular. In fact, the reason is very simple, the monarch believes that benevolence and justice can not help him win the world; And the people at the bottom. On the other hand, benevolence and justice are too hypocritical.

Although there are not many comments left by Yang Zhu, one of them is so famous that it has even become an idiom. That is, Yang Zhu once said, "Pull a hair and benefit the world, not for it." It basically means that pulling out a hair on my body can save the world and the people. Although it is easy for me, I will not do it. At first glance, it seems selfish and unreasonable. It's totally self-serving. But it's like a lot of famous people say. This quote is largely taken out of context, without context and without exploring its original meaning. As Thomas Edison famously said, "Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration." But actually this sentence. Only half said. Next sentence. Edison probably meant the role of the 1% of inspiration. But it is decisive. And Yang Zhu's sentence is also in context, beginning with "pull a hair and the world and benefit the world, I do not also." But "I will not serve one person at the expense of the world." Obviously the point of this sentence is in the second half of the sentence, the first half of the sentence is only to introduce the topic, not the focus of the discussion. And this is actually true of all generations of rulers. Rulers often fall under the name of some great cause. To ask the governed or his own people to make a small sacrifice is in fact to satisfy his own selfish desires. This desire is sometimes for territorial expansion, and sometimes for vanity and merit. It was the latter that Yang Zhu really objected to.

The thoughts of Yang Zhu. Can be summed up in two simple words, that is, "your own", everyone's life is only once, and life is limited, everyone can not escape death. So let's start with that premise. Follow your own feelings and satisfy your own. Interests meet their real needs. That's all that matters. By extension, death is inevitable, and although things change, there is nothing new under the sun, and what happened in ancient times still happens now, so you have lived well enough to experience what you should experience and there is no need to regret it, and how do you do this? Is to start from their own nature. And this kind of natural demand is more spiritual, so excessive material needs and people's livelihood fame and wealth are actually. What is not human is external and not worth pursuing.

In addition to this, it also embodies a very strong concept of property rights that is adapted to modern capitalist society. This hair is grown on my body, it is naturally part of my body, and I have full ownership of it. Whether to pull or not should be decided by my will can not be said. Because this thing is good for everyone, I have to do it. If this logic holds, then you can pull a hair out of me today, and you can pull out another hair tomorrow. Maybe one day it's okay to take my life for the good of the world. So if this loophole is opened, then my private property rights will no longer exist. The prosperity of human society has lost its foundation.

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